Trypillian Civilization 5400 - 2750 BC

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First World Congress "Trypillian Civilization"
Kyiv, October 7-11, 2004


Abstracts of World Congress "Trypillian Civilization" speaches in English
 


Dr. Romeo Dumitrescu,
Cucuteni pentru Mileniul III Foundation,
Bucharest, Romania

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THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CUCUTENI PENTRU MILENIUL III FOUNDATION TO
THE RESEARCH OF THE CUCUTENI CULTURE

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The Cucuteni Culture is considered to be the climax of the development of the calcolithic in the SouthEast of Europe. Ever since 1884, when the eponymous settlement was discovered, the Cucuteni Culture has attracted those interesed in archaeology, in Romania, but also abroad. Its painted ceramic represents an important contribution to the artistic treasure of humanity. After the fall of the communist system in Romania private initiative started manifesting itself in the field of archaeological research as well.

 In 2000 the Cucuteni pentru Mileniul III foundation was created in Bucharest, with the aim of protecting, in collaboration with state institutions, Precucuteni and Cucuteni archaeological sites, of contributing to the complex research of these civilisations and of informing the large audience in Romania and abroad on the results of these investigations.

 At the end of five years of activity the author of the paper makes a short survey of the achievements of the Foundation: systematic and salvation archaeological excavations, exhibitions and publications; he also means to present prospects for the future of the Foundation.


N. Kovalyukh, V. Skripkin, M. Videiko
Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of NAS of Ukraine, Kiev
Institute of Archaeology of NAS of Ukraine
Kiev
, Ukraine

PECULIARITIES OF RADIOCARBON DATING OF ANCIENT
 ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTTERY


The lack of radiocarbon dates for the most of known monuments from Neolithic epoch represents nowadays the principal impediment for a body of problems to be considered. These problems relate directly to genesis of either culture, division of studied culture into periods, as well as to their synchronisation in temporal correlation. This results from the fact that the cultural layers enclosing Neolithic monuments of partially wooded steppe and steppe landscape zones keep badly organic materials suitable for radiocarbon dating. Wood, coal and bone materials being within a good aeration soil are subjected to intensive microbiological destruction. As this takes place, the main archaeological finds are stone implements and pottery fragments.

Variant kinds of pottery are coming into widespread use over the area of Eastern Europe at the end of VII-VI BC millennia. Production of early pottery were allied to the technologies wherein the admixtures of organic origin (grass, chaffed straw, fluvial and lacustrine ooze and droppings) were used in addition to clayey component for plasticity and strength. The mentioned organic admixtures dominated in the primary pottery pasty mass and came to tens percent. Carbon content represented by coal inclusions after pottery annealing forms mostly 0,6-2 % in the mass total weight. Aluminocilicate matrix protects this carbon from oxidation and pollution by humic acids.

Just the availability of pottery such kind has brought into being prerequisites for successful radiocarbon dating of many archaeological complexes from Neolithic epoch. Under these conditions, the radiocarbon dating of pottery fragments is the unique way for authentic correlation between obtained radiocarbon dates and concrete cultural phenomenon.

Several series of pottery from early Neolithic cultures of Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland have been dated in the Kiev Radiocarbon Laboratory with new technologies applied in order to carry-out primary processing and synthesis of calculating form.

There have been gained some tens of dates for Tripolye, Dnieper-Donets and Bug-Dniester, cultures and otherwise. Radiocarbon dates on pottery are in good agreement with 14 dating on other organic material (fossil bone, coal) and archaeological prerequisites for each specific monument.


 

 

 

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