First World Congress
Kyiv, October 7-11, 2004
World Congress "Trypillian Civilization" speaches in English
„Cucuteni pentru Mileniul III” Foundation,
Äð. Ðîìåî Äóì³òðåñêó
Ôóíäàö³ÿ "Êóêóòåíü â ²²² Òèñÿ÷îë³òò³"
THE CONTRIBUTION OF
THE „CUCUTENI PENTRU MILENIUL III” FOUNDATION TO
THE RESEARCH OF THE CUCUTENI CULTURE
ÂÍÅÑÎÊ ÔÓÍÄÀÖ²¯ "ÊÓÊÓÒÅÍÜ Â ²²²
Â ÄÎÑË²ÄÆÅÍÍß ÊÓËÜÒÓÐÈ ÊÓÊÓÒÅÍÜ.
The Cucuteni Culture is considered to be the climax of the development
of the calcolithic in the South–East of Europe. Ever since 1884, when
the eponymous settlement was discovered, the Cucuteni Culture has
attracted those interesed in archaeology, in Romania, but also abroad.
Its painted ceramic represents an important contribution to the
artistic treasure of humanity. After the fall of the communist system
in Romania private initiative started manifesting itself in the field
of archaeological research as well.
In 2000 the „Cucuteni pentru Mileniul III” foundation was created in
Bucharest, with the aim of protecting, in collaboration with state
institutions, Precucuteni and Cucuteni archaeological sites, of
contributing to the complex research of these civilisations and of
informing the large audience in Romania and abroad on the results of
At the end of five years of activity the author of the paper makes a short
survey of the achievements of the Foundation: systematic and salvation
archaeological excavations, exhibitions and publications; he also
means to present prospects for the future of the Foundation.
V. Skripkin, M. Videiko
Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of
NAS of Ukraine, Kiev
Institute of Archaeology of NAS of Ukraine
PECULIARITIES OF RADIOCARBON DATING OF ANCIENT
lack of radiocarbon dates for the most of known monuments from
Neolithic epoch represents nowadays the principal impediment for a
body of problems to be considered. These problems relate directly to
genesis of either culture, division of studied culture into periods,
as well as to their synchronisation in temporal correlation. This
results from the fact that the cultural layers enclosing Neolithic
monuments of partially wooded steppe and steppe landscape zones keep
badly organic materials suitable for radiocarbon dating. Wood, coal
and bone materials being within a good aeration soil are subjected to
intensive microbiological destruction. As this takes place, the main
archaeological finds are stone implements and pottery fragments.
Variant kinds of pottery
are coming into widespread use over the area of Eastern Europe at the
end of VII-VI BC millennia. Production of early pottery
were allied to the
technologies wherein the admixtures of organic origin (grass, chaffed
straw, fluvial and lacustrine ooze and droppings) were used in
addition to clayey component for plasticity and strength. The
mentioned organic admixtures dominated in the primary pottery pasty
mass and came to tens percent. Carbon content represented by coal
inclusions after pottery annealing forms mostly 0,6-2 % in the mass
total weight. Aluminocilicate matrix protects this carbon from
oxidation and pollution by humic acids.
availability of pottery such kind has brought into being prerequisites
for successful radiocarbon dating of many archaeological complexes
from Neolithic epoch. Under these conditions, the radiocarbon dating
of pottery fragments is the unique way for authentic correlation
between obtained radiocarbon dates and concrete cultural phenomenon.
Several series of pottery
from early Neolithic cultures of Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland have
been dated in the Kiev Radiocarbon Laboratory with new technologies
applied in order to carry-out primary processing and synthesis of
There have been gained some tens
of dates for Tripolye, Dnieper-Donets and Bug-Dniester, cultures and
otherwise. Radiocarbon dates on pottery are in good agreement with
14Ñ dating on other organic material (fossil bone, coal)
and archaeological prerequisites for each specific monument.